Saturday, 30 November 2013

Third (848-1279) and Fourth (1279-1533) Civinelam Era -Greater Cholas/Later Pandyas

Greater / Imperial Cholas:  Contd.
  • Vicayalaia Vaagaikkaazhina Chola / Vijayalaya.  848-893 CE  (wages many battles against Mutharaiyas and their overlords the Pandyas, slowly building a kingdom from scratch; "lord of a thousand battles and a hundred lance-scars" -"aayirampoar thazhuvi nooraayiram thazhumbu tharitha Vaagaikkaazhinan")
  • Aditha Aathondai Chola    878-907 (defeats and kills King Aparajitha and annexes Pallava)
  • Parantaka Chola I "Kulam-thaanga Ari-maali"   907-950 (conquers Pandya, Chera, Gangas  and Anuradhapura; holds north and central Srilanka for 15 years since 935 CE (Mahavamsa) and makes Udaya III a vassal)
  • (Rasaathiraasan I)    947-950 (947^* the Chola king Rajaditya invades the Ganga kingdom to drive out the Ganga-Chalukya Perumanadi, who had established himself there. To the latter's call marches Krishna III of Rashtrakutas. Chola king wins Takkolam battle against Rashtrakutas, but killed by a deception plot)
  • Kandaraditha Chola.   950-957 (loses North Thondainadu to Rashtrakutas, however blocks the Rashtrakuta flood at the Cheyyar - Palar confluence; Madurai claims independence) 
  • Arinjaya Chola.     956-957    
  • Sundara Chola.     957-970.  (965 -crown-prince Aditha Karikala kills Veerapandiya and annexes Madurai; 967 -he also drives Rashtrakutas away beyond Kolar after the 17 years siege of Northwest Thondainadu; 969 -prince Rajaraja annexes most of Srilanka except Ruhuna to the Chola empire)
  • (Aditha Karikala Aathondai kovinko)     967-970 (murdered by ?Pandyan rebels)
  • Uttama Chola Maduranthakan "Beema Chola".    970-985
  • Rajaraja Chola I aka Kaalakaala II.       985-1014.  (975 -completes the conquests of Pandya, Chera, and Kongu; 985 -annexes Laccadives and Gangas; 987 -quenches new rebellions in Tambapanni/Srilanka; 988-991 -Vengi annexed; 992*# -Chalukya Tailappa is defeated in many of his strongholds and repulsed beyond Raichur into the core of Western Chalukya territory; 1000, 1002 -Chalukya Satyasraya driven away beyond Kolhapur and Pandharpur, to the mountains beyond northern origins of river Manjra, cornered and forced to submit to and accept Rajaraja Chola's overlord-ship;  Chalukyan inscriptions complain: "the Cholas then overran Maharashtra, pillaged it, and spared neither women, children nor Brahmans#"; after a period of restrictions of 3 years, he is benevolently allowed to continue to rule northern and central parts of the Chalukya kingdom as a subordinate with due monthly tributes to Tanjore; 989 -Tamil merchant guild is established in the port of Barus, on the west coast of North Sumatra; 1013-1015 -first Chola mission to the Song king in China) 
  • Rajendra Chola I Soora-marthanda.     1012-1047 (1014-1017 -annexes Maldives and completes the Chola conquest of the entire Srilankan island; Chola-Pandya governors appointed in Madurai; 1020-1021 -Jayasimha II of Chalukyas refuse to pay tributes and claim Manyakheta again, provoking Rajendra to send his armies to the the Chalukya capital and simultaneously to Vengi as well; Jayasimha routed in both fronts, and dealt severely; the clans of Nolambas and Kadambas of Hangal who were the allies of Chalukyas in these battles  were terminated; boundaries of the Chola empire extended across and beyond the Bhima and Manjra river banks, into the core of Western Chalukyas; Chola annexes Banavasi, Raichur (Edaichura), Kalaburugi (Gulburga), the capital Manyakhet, Rattapadi, Bhatkal and Kolhapur, and pushes the Chalukyas into their northern frontiers for their safety; Vengi, Manyakheta, Konkana, Bellary, Kadamba, Nolamba, Uchchangi, Hoysala, Ganga, Chera, Pandya and Srilanka become integral provinces of the Imperial Cholas; 1022-33 -annexes North Godavari, Bastar, Kalinga, Sakkarakottam, Bihar, Bengal defeating Mahipala, and kings of Kamboja Pala, Dandabhukti and of Chandra dynasty; 1025-1026 -naval expedition to Indochina, the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia in 1025: after the Khmer king Suryavarman I requested Chola aid against Tambralinga kingdom,* the latter sought from the Srivijaya King Sangrama Vijayottunggavarman,*|* who was captured; the Chola armada took large heaps of treasures including the Vidhyadara Torana, the jewelled 'war gate' of Srivijaya adorned with great splendour,[*]plundering the royal palace of Palembang and taking the kingand his family as hostages; the Cholas launched successive attacks on other Srivijayan ports - Malayu, Tumasik, Pannai and the port of Kadaram (Kedah).; the war ended with grand victories for the Chola and major losses for the Sri Vijaya Empire and the Tambralinga kingdom; 1030 -victory over 13 countries including Madamalingam (or Tambralinga), Mevilimbangam (or Palembang) (vide Thanjavur Peruvudaiyar Koil inscriptions, Jue-Tang-Chu and Sin-Tang-chu chronicles in Ming period), To-Po-Teng (South Thailand), To-Mo-Sang island (Temasek or Singapore), and Poli or Poling, Mali or Maling - Danmaling the Nakorn Sri Dharmaraj city of Tambralinga, its frontiers bordering Chen-La (Khmer); 1033-34 -further expeditions leading to the conquests of Andaman, Nicobar, West and South Burma, Southern Thailand and Indonesia, after  defeating  the king of Mandalay; the empire extracts annual tributes from these kings from Indonesia to Burma, and from Prayag to Angkor Wat, who were under direct Chola suzerainty till 1078 CE, and as tribute paying subordinates and trade partners an arrangement that lasted till the times of Kulothunga-III and to a limited extent, of Raja Raja-III; 1017-1026 -aids king Bhoja Paramara of Ujjain in thwarting and driving away Mahmud of Ghazni in his last few invasions; quells a rebellion by Kassapa in Srilanka; 1030-1033 -second Chola mission to China)
  • Rajadhiraja Chola.    1044-1054 (the Chalukya Ahavamalla Someswara I spent his reign in a ceaseless struggle against Chola aggression. The Chola empire now- extended in a half circle round the Chalukya kingdom. Ahavamala therefore moved his capital from Yatagiri (30 miles south of Malkhed) to Kalyan, the modern Kalyani in the Nizam's  dominions; the Chola king wins many battles against Someswara I on Tungabhadra and Krishna banks; but in the battle of Koppam (1052)just after securing the victory, Rajadhiraja falls to a loose arrow; Chalukyas claim that the Cholas lost Banavasi in the ensuing confusion)
  • Rajendra Chola II.     1051-1063 (crowned in the battlefield, after his brother the king dies; wins battles when Cholas invade Chalukyas; )
  • Rajamahendra Chola.   1057-1063 (wins battles when Cholas invade Chalukyas, dies in the last one)
  • Virarajendra Chola Keertivartana. 1063-1070 (1063 -Ahavamala was defeated first at Bejwada and afterwards at Kudal Sangam, the junction of the Krishna and the Tungabhadra; annexes Kalyani and northern core provinces of Chalukya, beyond Godavari, upto Vidharbha and river Wardha; 1065 -Someswara I pleads truce with Virarajendra; 1067 -the emperor sends Chola prince Thivakaala Rajendra (future Kulothunga I) as the governor of Srivijaya of Palembang, who later visits the Imperial court of China as the ambassador of the Tamil empire; 1068 -sends a successful naval expedition to Kedah to quell rebellion and appoint Srivijaya king in-charge of the province; 1068 -Ahavamalla Someswara I sends an signed letter to  the Chola king inviting him to meet him again at Kudal Sangam, but he prefers a subjectively dignified end by drowning himself in the River Krishna, rather than extending his humiliating losing streak; 1069 -Someswara II and Vikramaditya I fights for their Chalukya throne; Vikramaditya I submits to the Chola emperor and seeks his help -Vikramaditya had already deterred to Virarajendra's camp at Kudal Sangam and obtain his promise of help against Someshwara; the Chola emperor invades the Someshwara's side of Chalukya country and burns down Kampili##; the Chola make him king of Kalyani, and both sides enter into a bizarre and transient marital relationship by exchanging princesses as a purported mark to the beginning of a short-lasting independence for the Chalukyas, after the 80 year long Chola occupation of the Chalukyan homeland of what is now Bijapur and Gulburga)
  • Kulothunga Chola I Rajendrasaalangayanjozha Thivakaala*.  1070-1120 (grandson of Virarajendra and son of Vengi king (Eastern Chalukya) and Chola princess; invited and crowned by popular vote, after crown-prince Athirajendra invites and hands back the conquered Gulburga and Uttar Kannada territories to Vikramaditya VI Chalukya, his brother-in-law against Emperor Virarajendra's interests; 1071-1072 -regains Kolar, Gangavadi, Tungabhadra, and Kalyani, with the aid of Vengi chief and Vikramaditya VI is routed, captured and pardoned as he is also a Chola son-in-law and is made a petty governor of Bellary*; 1076 -when Cholas are absorbed in quenching Pandyan rebellions, Vikramaditya VI declares independence and is let off to slowly reclaim Kalyani, Raichur and Bellary; 1075-1077 -third Chola mission to China; 1088 -establishes fourth and fifth merchant guilds in Burma and Sumatra; 1078 -Pandya and Srilanka (Tambapanni / Tamiraparani) momentarily rise to power, but laid siege upon and annhilated in 1080 and 1084 respectively; kings Sundarapandya and Vijayabahu I flee to Agastyamalai and Wakirigala (near Ruhuna) respectively; 1092 -lose Vengi momentaily to Chalukyas; in a few months Cholas under prince Vikramachola regain and annex the lost frontiers of Vengi(1092) and Madurai(1088,1096), and win many battles along Bellary(1089,1092) and Raichur and Koppal(1098,1101); 1102 -Sinhalese king regain Polonnaruwa; 1110 -the famed conquest of Kalinga; 1115 -Chalukyas raid and siege Talakkadu, when the prince was away to the Chola capital to visit the ailing emperor)
  • Vikrama Chola.    1118-1135 (1118 -places a Chola governors in Kalinga and Vengi; invades Chalukyas who lose Tumkur and ?Vanavasi forever; 1120 -brings the remaining of Pandya (in the far south) and Chera again under the Cholas; 1118-1126 -Chalukya Vikramaditya VI occupies Vengi during Vikrama's coronation in the far south, but Cholas capture Vengi back after Vikramaditya's death, in 1126; 1121 -quells down Srilankan rebellions, the whole island (at times sans Ruhuna) is placed under Chola empire as a province, tributary or subordinate, or under Chola clans till 1266 CE with an interrugnum between 1153-1180 when the Chola domination was restricted to the lattitudes north of Polonnaruwa)
  • Kulothunga Chola II Anabhaayan Kirumi-kanda Chola. 1133-1150
  • Rajaraja Chola II Kanagachola.  1146-1173
  • Rajadhiraja II Konerinanmaia Chola. 1166-1178
  • Kulothunga III Konerinanmaia "Kaalakaala III" Chola.   1178-1218 (1180 -Pandyas' resurgence thwarted and dealt severely; conquers Kalinga (1190) and Srilanka(1196); places his governors in Polonnaruwa)
  • Rajaraja Chola III.      1216-1256 (1216 -Madurai independent again; 1223, 1225 and 1245 Pandyan invasions of Chola capital; 1256 -Kadava Pallava gain northern Chola territory)
  • Rajendra III Paadhira Chola.     1246-1279 (loses battles against Pandyas; 1268 -?Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan may have been killed in the final battle; 1272-1275 -Kadava Pallavas lay siege on Thanjavur)
Medieval Tamil Emperors / Rulers of Srilanka:
  • Paranthaka Chola  935-950.
  • Rajaraja Chola  969*-1014. (except Ruhuna)
  • Rajendra Chola I to Virarajendra Chola. 1014-1077 (all of Sri Lanka)
  • Vikramachola to Kulothunga II.  1121-1153 
  • Kulothunga II to Kulothunga Chola III.  1153-1180 (rule the land north of Polonnaruwa)
  • Kulothunga Chola III.  1180-1197 (unified the three Sinhala kingdoms of Ruhuna, Dakkinadesa (Malayarata) and Rajarata; direct rule initially and later installing his puppets)
  • Chodaganga 1196-1197 (governor of Kulothunga Chola III)
  • Anikanga 1209-1210 (governor of Kulothunga Chola III)
  • Lokissara / Ulageeswara Arikulamasitha  Eyina-chozhiyan 1210-1211 (governor of Kulothunga Chola III)
  • Parakrama Pandya 1212-1215 (Pandyan prince and brother-in-law of Sundara Pandya)
  • Kaalingamaagan / Kalinga Magha 1215-1222 (Chola prince and nephew of Kulothunga Chola III; originally a Chola governor of Kalinga; reign over Jaffna, Rajarata, Dakkinadesa Mayarata and Dambadeniya; 1222-1236 -upto Polonnaruwa; 1236-1255 -upto Vavunia; 1255 -in his 70th year of age, is dethroned by the invading  Tambralinga king of South Thailand Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja) 
  • Mahindantaka 1236-1260 (southern kingdom of Polonnaruwa; son-in-law of Kaalingamaaga); 1247 -thwarts an invasion by Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja king of Tambralinga, and drives them down to Dambadeniya) 
  • Jayabahuchozhiya 1260-1266 (son of Magindantaka; reign from Polonnaruwa seat of Rajarata)
  • Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan 1258-1268 (invades on the request of the Sinhala Ruhuna king to check Chandrabhanu Tambralinga, and make his North Srilankan kingdom a tributary to Pandya; a second attempt by Chandrabhanu to invade from the north prompts the Prince Jatavarman Veera Pandyan I, brother of emperor to intervene in 1262-1264; Chandrabhanu was killed; Savakanmaindan ("son of Java" the prince of Javanese - Tambralinga kingdom with a classical Tamil name -suggesting Tamil as lingua franca in Java and/or Tambralingam), his son, eventually submits and is allowed to retain control of the Jaffna kingdom)
  • Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I 1268-1302 (1274 -when Saavakamaindan embarks on another invasion of the south Ruhuna, the Pandya king  again invades and defeats him, and eventually installs one of their ministers Kulasekara Cinkaiariyan, an Aryacakravarti as the King of Jaffna and Konamalai; 1277-84 -Pandyas under Cinkaiariyan invades Yapahuwa the Sinhala capital, destroys the city and takes away the famed Buddha's tooth relic to South India, and direct Pandya rule continues till at least 1303 in Dambadeniya)
  • Kulasekara Cinkaiariyan (start of the Aryacakravarti dynasty (1288-1619))
  • 1300-1303 (?Jaffna Tamil king's invasion and destruction of the Sinhalese capital Polonnaruwa; Sinhalese driven southwest)
  • 1341-1344 (?Jaffna Tamil king's invasion and destruction of the Sinhala capital Karunegala; Sinhalese seat moved further south near the safer mountains)
    • 1350-55 -Alagakkonara or Alakakkōṉ(Tamil) or Allegakoen aka Alakesvara, a minister of the local king Vickramabahu III; a third generation powerful chief from a family of Tamil nobles from Kanchipuram; fortified a marshy region around present day Colombo region, on the marshes to the south of the Kelani Rivercalled the fortress Jayewardhanapura Kotte, "The fort"; 1369 Alakesvara drove out  the invaders from Jaffna kingdom. The Arya Chakaravarthi launched a second invasion attempt during the reign of Buwanekabahu V, landing in the southern kingdom by land and sea. Although the Sinhala king initially fled his capital, Alakeshwara crowns himself as the king of the southern island, simultaneously attacks the troops that arrived by sea, routing them at Dematagoda, and destroying their ships at Panadura
    • Kumara Alakesvara, half-brother of king Buwanekabahu V controlled the region from 1386–87 and 1391-1399
  • Vira Alakeswara 1387-1391; 1399-1414 (defeats Vanni chiefs and Jaffna patnam; 1405 -defeats, humiliates, pardons  and drives away the invading Chinese Ming Admiral Zheng He and his huge imperial fleets; 1411 -Zheng He returns again with bigger barbaric fleets, raids Colombo and Kotte, and treacherously kidnaps members of royal family, and Alakeswara is forced to come down; it is rumored an unknown general disguised as the local king was taken away by Zheng He to China and returned back after a year following interventions of the still powerful Tamil guilds of Yunnan and Nanjing; Alakeswara continued to rule for the next three years after Zheng He's raid)
  • 1408 (?Jaffna Tamil king's invasion and destruction of the Sinhala capital Gampola) 
  • 1435, a South Indian invasion from the Vijayanagara Empire, is recorded 
  • Senbaga Perumal aka Sapumal Kumaraya. 1449-1467 (a native Tamil from the East; expedition to Adriampet in modern South India, triggered by the seizure of a Lankan ship laden with cinnamon; conquest of Jaffna; skirmishes with Arikesari Parakrama Pandya of Tinnevelly who supported when Kanakasooriya Cinkaiariyan the Aryacakravarti king fled to South India añd returned to power after 1467)
  • Senbaga Perumal aka Sapumal Kumaraya ascended the Kotte throne under the name of Bhuvanaika Bahu VI. (c. A.D. 1472–1480)  (built the Nallur Kandaswamy temple in Jaffna as well as other Temples and Buddhist Vihares in the South; put down rebellions against him)
  • Pandita Parakrama Bahu VII
  • Parakramabahu VIII (also known as Ambulagala Kumara) was King of Kotte in the fifteenth century, who ruled from 1484 to 1518.
  • Dharma Parakramabahu IX was King of Kotte in the sixteenth century, who ruled from 1508/09 to 1528
  • Vijayabahu VII was the son of Vira Parakrama Bahu VIII, who was an adopted child of Parakrama Bahu VI who founded Kotte
  • Bhuvanekabahu VII king of Kotte from 1521 to 1551
  • Mayadunne (1521–1581) king of the Kingdom of Sitawaka,  ruled for 60 years; defeats Veediye Bandara of Pelenda; with the support of Weerasundera Mudali of Peradeniya, Rajasinha  invaded in 1583 and chased Karalyadde Bandara king of Kandy
  • Raigam Bandara 1538, Mayadunne annexed the Kingdom of Raigama
  • Dharmapala
    (aka Dom Joaõ Dharmapala)
  • Rajasinha I aka Tikiri Bandara of the Kingdom of Sitawaka 1581 to 1592: conflicts with Buddhist monks;  followed an anti-Buddhist line: remarkable siege at Colombo Portuguese Fortsettled Brahmans at significant Buddhist sites such as sigiriya, sri pada etc. Under the advice of a South Indian, named Aritta Kivendu Mannamperuma Mohottala, his chief advisor he razed many Buddhist religious sites to the ground; in the Sath korale region, a prince named Pothupala Bandara rebelled against Rajasinha with the support of Portuguese; all leaders who supported the rebellion were be headed; prelates were involved in an attempt to make Konappu Bandara the king of Kandy; the  conspiracy was exposed leading to execution of hundreds of Buddhist prelates, 121 monks were killed by Rajasinha)
  • Vimaladharmasuriya I of the kingdom of Kandy aka Konappu Bandara 1590-1604
Chola branch(es):
KONGU CHOLAS   1224-1303 CE
after a 30 year obscurity
    *  Thiribhuvanaviradeva Chola (1309-1325 CE) from Gangaikondacholapuram (control:Tanjavur-Bhuvanagiri)
    *  Konerirayan / Konerinanmai kondachozhan II (1325-1362 CE) from Thirunallam (Konerirajapuram) (controlled Tiruchi-Nagapatinam-Kanchi)
    *  Keertimaan Perruvaraiyan (1365-1404)
    *  Thirumalaivarayan (1405-1444)
    *  Mazhavaraiyan (1445-1473)
    *  Thippivaraiyan (1474-1508)
    *  Karuvoorvaraiyan (1509-1529)
    *  Viravicayasaenkara Cholavaanagan(1530-1538 CE) (1533 -conquered Madurai, lost it completely in 1535)

Thanjavur Nayakar:

  • Sevappa Nayak (1564–1580)
  • Achuthappa Nayak (1560–1614)
  • Raghunatha Nayak (1600–1634)
  • Vijaya Raghava Nayak (1634–1673)

Kaadava Pallavas:
  •      Virasekaran -of Kudaloor (near Cuddalore)
  •      Manavalapperumal -feudatory of Kulothunga Chola III
  •      Kopperunchingan I Kulottungachola Kadavarayan Azhagiyasiyan (1216 - 1242 CE) (controlled Senthamangalam-Kanchipuram)
  •      Kopperunchingan II (1243 - 1279 CE) (controlled Cholas from 1272-1275)
  •      Kachchiyarayan (minor feuds)
  •      Cholakon               "
  •      Nilagangaraiyan     " 
Pirkaalappandiyar / Later Free Pandyas:      
  • Maravarman Sundara Pandyan I (1216–1238 CE)
  • Sundaravaramban Kulasekaran II (1238–1240 CE)
  • Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II (1238–1251 CE)
  • Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251–1268 CE)
  • Maaravaramban Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1308 CE)
  • Sundara Pandyan IV (1309–1311 CE)
  • Vira Pandyan IV (1309–1314 CE)
Last Pandya in exile -Namakkal Pandya:
  • Vira Pandyan IV (1314–1347 CE)
Tenkasi Pandya branch: (1314-1334 CE)

Maavali Vaanara/Banas of Madurai: (1311-1538 CE) -(Pollachi-South Madurai-Pudukottai-Ramnad belt)
  •       Kayalmasitha Vaanagatharaiya 1311-1373 CE
  •       Ranga-villi-dasan Naavalai Pandyakulanthakan 1373-1374
  •       Bhuvanekavira Samara Kolaakalan 1374-1411

  •       Ponparappinar Bhuvanekaviran II  1411-1433
  •       Vikramarkka I Garudaketanan 1433-1437
  •       Pugazhvippavarkandan Vazhuthi-saengaran 1438-1447
  •       Thirumalirunjolai Maavali Vaanar  1447-1469 CE 
  •       Sundarathoaludaiyan Maavali 1469-1479
  •       Kaalaiyaar Somanaar 1479-1487
  •       Anjaatha Perumal 1487-1499
  •       Moodharaicha Thirumalai Maavali 1499 CE 
  •       Thennangon Vaanaathi Varayar 1499-1530 CE
  •       Chandrasekara Pandyakulaanthakan 1531-1533 CE
Madurai Sultanate (North Madurai, Trichinopoly and Arcot districts)  
Following Raids by : 
  • Malik Kafur 1310.
  • Chera king Rajavarma 1313.
Sultanate.  1315-1377 CE:
As feudatories to Delhi Khilji and Tuglaq dynasties.  1315-1332 CE
As independent Sultans.  1333-1377 CE: 
  • Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan 1325-1339 CE 
  • Alaud din Udauji Shah 1339–1340
  • Qutb ud din Firoz 1340
  • Giyaz uddin Muhammad Damghan 1340-1344 (kills Hoysala Vira Ballala; Ibn Batutah visits)
  • Nazir ud din Mahmud Damghan 1344–1356 
  • Adl Shah 1356–1359
  • Faqr ud din Mubarak 1359–1368
  • Ala ud din Sikandar 1368–1377
First Madurai Nayaks:
  • Kodikan Naaikkan 1372 CE
  • Kampana Udaiyar  1372-1404 CE
  • Embana Udaiyar
  • Porkasa Udaiyar
  • Lakkana Nayakkan coregent with
  • Mathanan (both 1404-1451 CE)
Later Madurai Nayaks:  1533-1736 CE
  • Nagama Nayakkan
  • Viswanatha Nayakka 
  • Viswanatha Nayakka
  • 1533-1535
  • 1535–1559
  • 1559-1563
  • Kumara Krishnappa Nayakka
  • 1563–1573
  • Joint Rulers Group I
  • 1573–1595
  • Joint Rulers Group II
  • 1595–1602
  • Muttu Krishnappa Nayakka
  • 1602–1609
  • Muttu Virappa Nayakka
  • 1609–1623
  • Tirumalai Nayakka
  • 1623–1659
  • Muthu Alakadri Nayakka
  • 1659–1662
  • Chokkanatha Nayakka
  • 1662–1682
  • Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayakka
  • 1682–1689
  • Rani Mangammal
  • 1689–1704
  • Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayakka
  • 1704–1731

  • Queen Meenakshi             1731-1736

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for posting this detailed lineage of kings. Can you provide the source of this information? We are working on a research article and want to properly do the citation. Thanks.