Saturday, 30 November 2013

First (250-556 CE) and Second (556-848CE) Civinelam Era -Kalabhra/Kalapparar Republics

Kalapparar / Kalabhra Republics:
    • 250 CE -A consortium of many city-states form Kalappara("kala+parar"--field-toilers/peasants) republics headed by
  1. Idakali  I (Kali-arasan) local chief of Nadunaadu  c250 CE 
  2. Kotpuli Nayanar of Pugaar.  c250 CE  (a Chola general)
  3. Kaazhimalaiyan of Miladu  c250  CE
  4. Velkezhu Nallikkoen of Thottivettuvam. c250 CE
  5. Ilankumanan of Mudhiramalai.  c250 CE
  6. Thiraiyan of Pavuthirai  c250 CE (a Thondaiman Pallava prince)
  7. Aai-Viyankoe-Karunaadan of Erumaiyur (Tamil:"mai+ur"="karu+nadu") c250  CE
  8. Pulli of Vengadam  c250 CE
  9. Kaaralan of Kadamba. c250 CE (last chief of Cankam Tamil Kadambas; 280 -allies with Vigarakon (Viyankoe) of Erumaiyur, and both these chiefs of North Tamil Kalabhra republics rally against the Kalabhra de-facto emperor Soora Thanjan; killed at Vatapi battle by Thanjan; crown-prince Aankari-mungan killed by Kalabhra general Ayalan)
  10. Soora Thanjan of Parankundram ?c250-325 CE (minister of the last of Cankam Pandya king; seizes Madurai throne in the popular Kalappara (Kalabhra) uprising; 270 -becomes chief of the all-Kalabhra consortium; moves his capital to Sikkal; defeats Pallavas who attacked the Kalappara / Kalabhra city-states of Mudhirai and Pazhakkadu, at Vallam and Kadalmallai; 280 -occupies Vanavasi bringing to an end the Cankam Tamil Kadamba dynasty; ?300 -builds a new capital for Kalabhras, named after him -Thanjavur; ?300 -quells a rebel by his Madurai general Ayamugan; 325 -wins many battles against Siva Skanda Pallava before being killed in his last at Patteesuram, at his hundredth year, by the Pallava prince Vishnuvaramban)

  • Simbullman 290-333 CE (co-regent with his father Suran Thanjan) 
  • Idakazhinan II  / Idankazhi / Idangazhi Nayanar. ?c333-399 CE (After Thanjan's demise, and Emperor Simbullman's abdication, the latter' nephew Idangazhi II the Konaadu chief stationed then at the Kodumbaloor fortress, is crowned as the Kalabhra  (Kalappaalar) emperor; 344 -thwarts and drives away Samudragupta who invaded the northern Pallava protectorates, which Idakazhinan annexes to the Kalabhra empire; 385 -kills Skandavaramba II and destroys a Vakataka-Gupta army of ?Vindhyasena II and Rudrasena II in a battle on the Krishna banks)
  • ?unknown (420 -loses battle against Aagavaramba Pandya)
  • Achu-thaavi Karanthan aka Tevveengya II.   c450-506 CE (initially a chief of Thirukaranthai in Nadunaadu, also a (maternal) grandson of the chief of Vengadu near Pugar; 450 CE-defeats Aagavaramba Pandyan and annexes Madurai; by 454 CE conquers Chera and Pallava; rules with Chidambaram as his capital, and with Cholas as his able generals; makes the Medieval Kadamba clan of Vanavasi his vassal, extracting huge half-yearly tributes; unifies and rules  all land south of River Krisna)
  • Kootran / Kootruva Nayanar.  c507-528 CE (initially governor of Madurai, becomes Kalabhra king of Madurai, as after his mother's brother and emperor Achu-thaavi dies of old age, a strong rebellious Pandyan prince had to be put away, with  the South needing constant watch; the emperor's son Prince  Meikandaan is just 14, a Chola general Pugazhinan is appointed as the chief of Oriental and Central Kalabhra territory -extending from (the present) Thiruvannamalai to Pudukottai districts in length, and from coast-to-coast across the old Tamil land; Meikandaar raised at Chidambaram, is initially placed as governor of Miladu, and in 530 CE is crowned as Madurai king after Kootruvan)
  • Meikanda Nayanar.  c530-560 CE (son of Achu-thaavi Karanthan; rules from Madurai; killed treacherously by a Pandyan prince Muthanathan disguised as a sage)
  • Cedivallavan.  c540-560 CE (ruled Karuvoor; 556 -defeated by Simmavishnu)
Medieval Chola Emperors, Kings & Vassals:
  • unknown (Cholas as vassals/governors  of Kalappara)  250-506 CE.
PUGAZHINA DYNASTY:
  1. Pugazhkko Chola of Karaivadavur. 506-551 CE (first Chola king after a hiatus of 250 years; conquers and rules over Chera, Gangas, Pallavas, and Anuradhapura; conqueror of Srilanka as mentioned in Mahavamsa; capital at Malaikkootram (Kumbakonam)) 
  2. Paeyili Chola.   551-556 CE
  3. Yaappudhi-iya Chola.
  4. Seruthaanai-maia Chola.   580-605 CE (vassal of Pallava)
  5. Karuncigai Chola.
  6. Sezhiamaia Paathivan Irumudi Chola.  640-695 CE (640 -kills Pandya king Chezhian Cendan in the battle of Kanapereyil; rules Pazhaiyaaru and Madurai till 670
  7. IRANNMAYIL DYNASTY:   
  8. Irannmaia Kaalakaala Chola I.  695-?752 CE (695 -son of daughter of Sezhiyamaia Paathiva; hence claims descent both from Idakazhinan II and Pugazhkko Chola; captures Kanchi, the Pallava crown-prince Irannyavarman killed in the battle, crowns his own brother-in-law and Pallava prince Rajasimman I at Kanchi after 5 years; his younger brother and Chola prince is Seruthunai Nayanaar)
  9. Pathin-thiththa Chola.  753-770 CE (755 -loses to Nandivarman II, Pallava suzerainty until 796 CE)
  10. Sakkiru-vatrina Chola.  770-780 CE
  11. Thaayumaana Chola.   780-798 CE (796 -declares independence from Pallavas who are in their weakest reign of the century)
  12. Thaarumavaramba Chola.  798-827 CE 
  13. Sooraman Chola (Sooraathiraja).  828-843 CE  (starting from 833 -invades Tambapanni (Srilanka) four times in the next eleven years, lay siege on Ruhuna, extract heavy annual tributes, and makes Sinhala kingdom a vassal of Pazhaiyaru  till 843 (Mahavamsa))
  14. interregnum: 843-848 (Sooraman Chola poisoned when visiting a vihara in Anuradhapura; Pandyas capture South Chola country (upto southern banks of Kaveri) and place Mutharaiyas as governors; the 13-year old Chola prince Vijayalaya escapes to Kodumbalur palace)
  15. Vijayalaya Chola.  848-893 CE  (wages many battles against Mutharaiyas and their overlords the Pandyas, slowly building a kingdom from scratch; "lord of a thousand battles and a hundred lance-scars")
  16. [Contd. Imperial Cholas into Third Kandikai Era]
Medieval Tamil emperors 
(of the whole island / most of Srilanka):



(Sangha Tissa I)--248252*A Lambakanna

(Siri Sangha Bodhi I
(aka Siri Sangabo))
--252254*A Lambakanna-
 claimed by Mahavamsa as the greatest Buddhist devotee; claimd by other sources like Abithana Chintamani as having embraced Saivism in his last days, after he lost his eyes from a curse by a Saiva sage.

Kotthuvan aka Gothabhaya--254267*Minister of State

Asuvatthonteesa aka Jettha Tissa I--267277*Eldest son of Gothabhaya

Mahasena--277304*Brother of Jettha Tissa
*Younger son of Gothabhaya

Sirimeghavanna--304332*Son of Mahasena

Jettha Tissa II--332341*Brother of Sirimeghavanna

Buddhadasa--341370*Son of Jettha Tissa II

Upatissa I--370412*Eldest son of Buddhadasa

Mahanama--412434*Brother of Upatissa I

Soththisena--434434*Mahanama’s son born to a Tamil mother
Pandu 429-441 CE – first of six Pandiyan rulers
Parindha 441
Kutta Parindha 441-447
Tiritara 447
Dathiya 447-450
Pithya 450-452
Pugazhko Chola 506-551
Eezhankadandha Paeyili Chola 551-556
Paramesvaravarma Pallava 672-695 
Surathiraja Chola 833-847

Pandyan kings:

AAVARAMBINA DYNASTY:
  • (Nilavani Pandyan) 
  • Aaranjaathu Vem-maga-pandyan Aaga-varamban (c420-450 CE)
  • 450-560 CE (a province of Kalabhras)  
  • Kadungon II (560–590) (plots and murders Kalabhra king Meikanda Nayanar, and seizes Madurai)
  • Maravarman Avani Culamani (590–620)
  • Cezhiyan Cendan (620–640) (630 -Pandyas uñder crown-prince Jayantavarman, Ganga chief Durvinita and Chalukya king Pulakeshi II attack Pallavas from three sides, and Mahendravarman loses northern frontiers; 640 -loses throne to Sezhiamaia Irumudi Chola)
  • Saianta-varamban (630-670) (640 -vassal of Chola)
  • Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran (670–710) (670 -granted independence again for his aid to Cholas in controlling a Chera uprising; allies with Chalukya king Vikramaditya I, and attacks Pallavas at Uraiyur, and is defeated; 709 -annexes Chera through wins in multiple battles)
  • Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran Vangiya-kalazhon (710–735) (annexes Ay country and South Travancore; wins Mangalore battles against Chera and Chola; skirmishes on and in Chalukya Vikramaditya II and Gangas frontier territories; lose last three battles against and killed by Irannmaia Chola)
  • Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasimha I (735–765) (755 -independent after the death of Irannmaia Chola; conquers Kongu, Malava, and Ganga; defeats Ganga Sripurusha and Chalukya Kirtivarman II)
  • Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (765–790) (initially a vassal of Pallava; defeats Vidukaadhazhagiiya-perumaal-athigan of Thagadoor and Kuthiraimalai  (Dharmapuri, Mandya and Bangalore districts) on behalf of Nandhivarman II (789) and thence granted freedom)
  • Rasasingan II (790–800)(marital relationship with Cholas)
  • Varagunan I Vangiya-padhaaga Pandyan (800–830)
  • Sirmara Seervallabha (830–862) (battles vs. Nandivarman III, loses and regains Madurai, wins at Kumbakonam against Pallavas)
  • Varagunavarman II (862–885) (?usurper; 885 -loses Thirupurambiyam battle to Pallava and Chola, turns ascetic)
  • Parantaka Viranarayana (885–900) (Varaguna's brother)
MAARA-SUNDARA DYNASTY:
  • Maravarman Rajasimha II (900–920) (usurper; killed by Parantaka Chola)

Pallava kings:

MANIPALLAVA NAAGA-CHOLA DYNASTY:
  1. Thondaimaan Ilanthiraiyan 76 - 110 CE (Chola prince & vassal of Cholas)
  2. Vaezhaeru Nagathiraiyan  110 - 140 CE (vassal of Cholas; Ptolemy Map(140CE) shows Sora Nagas and Basaro Naga  in Malanga (Mavilangai) and Kanchi, in the present Tamil Nadu and Andhra pradesh states, apart from the emperor Sornaga of Uraiyur)
  3. Kovvai-thiraimaan Kaalapatruthi 140 - ?160 CE (vassal of Chola)
  4. Aasu Azhuvaththu Aamaan aka ?Amur-thandha Mallan II 160 - ?189 CE ,,
  5. Oondha-nirai-thondaiyarkon Soodaa'manipallavan 190 - 200 CE ,,
  6. Virral-kurichivaramaan Kurumboth'arav'ina-kon 200 - 210 CE ,,
  7. MAAVILANKAI-VARAMBAR KAADAVA DYNASTY:            
  8. Moo-vaagaimaan Mukkannamaya Thondaiyarkon 210 - 250 CE (210 -the Thondaimaans had unified ten smaller kingdoms in their vicinity viz. Malli, Poozhi, Aruvaa, Maavilankai, Aamoor, Venkatam, Kanimalai, Nallamalai, Kadalmallai and Vaiyavi along with their own Thondainaadu, whence the unified region came to be known as "the country of ten states" or "Pallava naadu" and the rulers "Pallavas": (Pal and Paththu in Tamil mean "a set of ten"); 225 -Moovagaiman annexes southern regions of Satavahanas, upto Visalur and Kolhapur).
  9. Kezhupparavina Thiraiyan Sooravaramban 250-275 CE (son of Mukkannamaia Tondaiyarkon; 274 -lay siege on Kalabhra city-states Mudhirai and Pazhakkadu; 275 -Kalabhra emperor Thaarsura Thanjan routs Thiraiyan Sooran at Kadalmallai battle)
  10. Simma Varamban I Kaanagopan 275–300 CE (second son of Thiraiyan Sooran;  killed in battle by Simbullman the Kalabhra emperor (co-regent with his father Suran Thanjan))
  11. Siva Skanda Varambanaagan I Uyyara Uyarko-kon 300-340 CE (annexes current Srisailam, Wanaparthy, Krisna and Bellary, after many wars with Pravarasena I -in the last of which Vakataka crown prince Gautamiputra is killed; defeats Kuntala Chutus who offer princess for truce; 325 -crown-prince Vishnuvaramba kills Kalabhra emperor Soora Thanjan (allegedly just before his 100th year, to prevent him become immortal and to avenge for his grandfather's death) at Patteesuram near Cauvery banks; naval expeditions and settlements to Indochina -crowns a Pallava prince Saanattan  in Funan, followed by another prince Saynn-senjan)
  12. Vishnu-gopan Thirumaandhinvaramban 340-355 CE (344 -northern frontiers -Vengi, Aavamutram (Avamukta), Pazhakkadu and Kariyaru raided by Samudragupta's army; invasion repulsed immediately with the arrival of Kalabhra emperor Idakazhinan II / Idangazhi Nayanar upon Pallava's request; 345 -post-raids Pallava made vassal of Kalabhras (Kalapparas))
  13. Kumaravishnu I ?356–370 CE (Pallava princess married to the Kalappara emperor, Pallava granted independence again; but loses hold of Nittur (Bellary)  to ?Western Gangas, and Visalur to ?Vakatakas)
  14. Skandavaramban II 370–385 CE (385 -when Pallava invite the Vakatakas under Vindhyasena and Rudrasena to invade Vanavasi and Kudagu, the Kalappara emperor destroys the allied armies near Kolhapur in Kuntala; Skandavarman II and ?Rudrasena II killed)
  15. Virralinavarmban 385–400 CE
  16. Skandavarmban III 400–436 CE
  17. Simmavarman II Seermeega-Kadavarkon 436–460 CE (regains Srisailam and Krisna districts)
  18. Skandavarman IV 460–480 CE (vassal of Kalapparas)
  19. Nandivarman I 480–510 CE ,,
  20. Kumaravishnu II 510–530 CE (vassal of Cholas)
  21. Buddhavarman 530–540 CE      ,,
  22. Kumaravishnu III 540–548 CE  ,,
  23. Simmavarman III Ulagadhitha Ukkirathandan 550-560 CE (Simhavarman kills Chalukya king Ranarasika)
  24. Simmavishnu Kaadavarkon Avanisimman Aiyatikal Nayanar / Simhavishnu 555–590 CE (556 -gets Kanchi, Uraiyur; 566 -naval expedition to and settlements in Srilanka, Malay, Thai, Laos and Kampuchea; his brother Bhimavarma Kaadavarkon sets up Kaudavasiya Khmer dynasty; 590 -gets Pudukottai and Vengi, north of Pennar)
  25. Mahendravarman I Satrumallan 600–630 CE (c630 -raid by Ereya Immadi Pulakesin II , aided by Pandyas and Gangas, in the northern Pallava frontiers)
  26. Narasimmavarman I Mamallan 630–668 CE (visit by Hieun Tsang; 642 -Chalukyas invade Pallavas, but routed and chased back to Vatapi, which is demolished; Narasimmavarman I kills Chalukya Pulakesin II, with the aid of his able general Paranjothi Siruthonda Nayanar; 642-655 CE -Pallavas annex Vatapi and central Chalukyan states, and rule over them for the next thirteen years)
  27. Mahendravarman II 668–672 CE
  28. Paramesvaravarman I Egamallan 670–695 CE (670 -Vikramaditya allies himself with the Pallava's other enemy the Pandyan Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman; Chalukyas crushed and driven away at Uraiyur and winß the battle with the Chalukya ally Ganga Bhuvikrama at Vilande; defeats Chalukyas again at Puluvanallur battle (674); with the aid of the Chola army and general the Kodumbaloor chief, he defeats Chalukya Vikramaditya I and raids his capital; the enraged Pallava emperor sweeps into Deccan once again and withdraws forces only after complete subjugation of the enemy; the Rayakota Pallava grant of this king calls him Parameswara-aswamedha-yajin or Parameswara varman who completed aswamedha yagnam; the military mission is so successful that for several years after this the Pallava forces remain dominant throughout Asia; Pallavas goes on to occupy many of the Chalukya territories but later leaves after the Chalukyas agree to pay yearly tributes; suzerainty over Srilanka and parts of South East Asia)
  29. a governor of Irannmaia Chola 695-700 CE
  30. Narasimmavarman II Rajasimman Kazharsinga Sivachudamani Rajamallan 700–728 CE (a great militarist; that the Pallavas were recognized as a major power during his period is testified by the fact that ambassadors are exchanged with China; this period is relatively free from major wars and Pallava domination of South East Asia continues; builds Kanchipuram Kailasanathar temple and Mahabalipuram shore temples)
  31. Paramesvaravarman II 728–731 CE (730 -Kanchi captured by Chalukya Vikramaditya II briefly; 731 -killed when waging a return invasion on Ganga-Chalukya at Nittur near present Hampi)
  32. KAMBOJA KAADAVA DYNASTY:  
  33. Nandivarman II Uyyakondan Thirumalai Pallavamallan 731–796 CE (raids by Vikramaditya II in 731 & 745; 755 -Pallava annexes Chola and Chera;796 -raid by Rashtrakuta in the northern frontiers, Chola and Pandya independent again)
  34. Thantivarman 796–825 CE (raids by Rashtrakutas, loses northern frontiers: The Pallava empire was now divided into three parts. One branch, known as the Gangas,* ruled over the western portion. Another branch, known as the Ganga Banas, ruled the centre. The kingdom of the main branch of the Pallavas was reduced to the districts on the eastern coast. Upon this disorganised dominion Rashtrakuta king Dhruva fell.)
  35. Nandivarman III 825–869 CE (829 -defeats Pandya, regains South Pallava; marries princess Sankha the daughter of Amoghavarsha I of Rashtrakutas; 834-840 -annexes and holds on to North Madurai-Vaigai; 865 -loses Kumbakonam battle to Pandya)
  36. Nirupatunga. 869-879 CE 
  37. Verkammavarmban. 877-880 CE
  38. Vayiramegavarmban. 880 CE  
  39. Aparajitavarman ?880–897 CE (885 -defeats Pandya at Thirupurambiyam with the aid of Chola)

No comments:

Post a Comment